By W. Tarok. Wayland Baptist University.

Consequences of anemia ƒ Delayed psychomotor development and cognitive performance in children and adolescence trusted 25 mg cozaar managing diabetes hot weather. Therefore buy generic cozaar 25mg online diabetes type i definition, it is important that pregnant women routinely receive iron supplements. In places where anemia prevalence is high, 62 Nutrition supplementation should continue into the postpartum period, to enable them acquire adequate stores of iron. Iodine Iodine is one of the micronutrients, which is highly essential for regulation of physical growth and neural developments. Failure to have adequate level of iodine in the blood leads to insufficient production of these hormones, which affect many different parts of the body, particularly muscle, liver, kidney, and the developing brain. Sources of Iodine ƒ Milk and sea food ƒ Drinking water ƒ Plant source depends on whether or not iodine present in the soil ƒ Iodized salt Functions of Iodine ƒ It is required for normal physical and mental growth. Iodine is naturally found in the top soil, most of the areas in Ethiopia specially in the high lands, the top soil is eroded with deforestation, 63 Nutrition soil erosion and flooding, thus the crop we grow for food do not have iodine in them and as a result leads to iodine deficiency. People of all ages and sexes are vulnerable but become acute in fetus, children, pregnant women and lactating mothers. They eat the same iodine deficient food and drink the same iodine deficient water. The introduction of iodized salt in their diet will improve their health and productivity; livestock fed iodized salt will produce iodine rich milk and meat. An iodine deficient diet will lead to increased stillbirth and miscarriages and a reduced yield of milk, eggs, meat and wool. Iodine Deficiency Disorder can be eliminated by the daily consumption of iodized salt. Salt has been chosen as vehicle for the supply of iodine because it is used universally by all ages, sexes, socio-economic, cultural and religious groups throughout the year. Iodized salt is also a preventive and corrective measure for iodine deficiency and is the most effective low cost, long-term solution to a major public health problem. Iodized salt has to be used on a daily basis as long as one lives in an iodine deficient environment. This is the only safe and long-term solution to a problem that affects many Ethiopians. The benefits of iodized salt ƒ Universal Salt Iodization can lead to an increase of the average intelligence of the entire school age population. The major consequences of iodine deficiency ƒ Mental retardation ƒ Defects in the development of nervous system ƒ Goiter ƒ Physical sluggishness ƒ Reduced work capacity ƒ Impaired work performance ƒ Decreased average intelligence ƒ Loss of memory ƒ Inability to produce enough milk for offspring ƒ Lower birth weight ƒ Growth retardation 65 Nutrition ƒ Dwarfism ƒ Deaf-mutism ƒ Cretinism ƒ Reproductive failures (abortion, prematurity, stillbirth) ƒ Increased childhood morbidity and mortality ƒ Economic stagnation and ƒ Impotency. Except in infants and sick persons, especially comatose person who cannot respond to the thirst stimulus. Body water ƒ About half of the adult body weight is water 55% for man and 47% for woman. Body water components in the reference man Model Compartment Kg % Molecular Total body H2O 40 100 Cellular Intra cellular 23 57 Extra cellular 17 43 Tissue Plasma 2. When the water supply is restricted or when losses are excessive the rate of water loss exceeds the rate of electrolyte loss. Then the extra cellular fluid becomes concentrated and osmotic pressure draws water from the intra-cellular fluid into the extra-cellular fluid to compensate. It is worth remembering that the fetus development in 40 weeks from the two cells joined at conception into an independent infant with a functioning nervous system, lungs, heart, stomach, and kidneys. To support this rapid growth and development major changes takes place in the mother’s body. Under normal conditions the mother’s weight increases by 20 per cent during pregnancy. They have to be healthy and need the time, the knowledge and the right environment to carryout their duties. Proper care of children ƒ Appropriate hygiene and sanitation ƒ Safe food preparation and storage ƒ Successful breast feeding and adequate weaning practice ƒ Psychosocial care such as attention, affection and encouragement ƒ Equitable health services and a healthy environment, ƒ Spacing of child birth. Assessment of nutritional status Nutritional assessment is the process of estimating the nutritional position of an individual or groups, at a given point in time, by using proxy measurement of nutritional adequacy. It provides an indication of the adequacy of the balance between dietary intake and metabolic requirement. Uses of Nutritional Assessment It should aim at discovering facts to guide actions intended to improve nutrition and health. To what extent has the intervention, treatment, or programme had the intended effect (impact) Anthropometrics assessment It is the measurement of the variation of physical dimensions and the gross composition of the human body at different age levels and degrees of nutrition. Waterlow classification Weight Above Below Height Above Normal Acute malnutrition Nutritional Chronic Below Dwarfism Malnutrition Identification malnutrition superficially Changes in the superficial tissues or in organs near the surface of the body, which are readily seen or felt upon examination. These include changes in: – Eyes – Skin – Hair – Thyroid gland 77 Nutrition Common indicators ƒ Edema ƒ Dyspigmentation of the hair ƒ Angular Stomatits ƒ Corneal lesions ƒ Swelling (enlargement) of glands Discussion questions 1. What are the nutritional risk factors which have an influence on a child’s nutritional state? Nutritional surveillance: is defined as the measurement of the frequency and distribution of nutrition related diseases or problems using regularly collected and available information.

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On condition that: your chapters are updated and the literature published up to August 2006 is integrated into the text cozaar 50 mg amex diabetic diet list; the text arrives here by 30th September purchase cozaar 25 mg blood sugar index; the citations are newly compiled and correctly formatted (see below for further details). Original documents The text must only be written in the Word document which we have enclosed here. Citations In the text, the citation is placed between round brackets, only giving the surname of the first author and the year (Hoffmann 2004). There are more details in these three lines than you may think: There is no full stop after the initials of first names; several initials are written together. If there are more than 6 authors, the first 3 are named, then comes a comma, followed by “et al” and finished with a full stop. Only the end digits of the last page number, which are necessary for clear identification, are given. Thus, 2423-2429 becomes 2423-9, 134-141 becomes 134-41, 1891-1901 becomes 1891-901. Working with Word Working with styles Font size and typeface should only be changed via the so-called templates. Compiling the reference lists Citations must be given according to a uniform pattern. Tables Tables serve to break up the text and summarise important information in a concise manner. Working with Word Planning a medical textbook Only write if you want your book to be No. Those who cannot perform this task themselves should delegate the job to a professional reader. Keyboard shortcuts You write the text with your fingers, so you should use the many keyboard shortcuts. Your hand then stays on the keyboard, and you save yourself the trouble of reaching for the mouse. However, the main page of the publication – be it the home page of a website or a book cover – must mention the source of the information in this way: Adapted from www. In addition, the authors of the individual chapters have to be mentioned at the beginning of every single chapter. The translation into any other language must reproduce the original documents faithfully. Pay the greatest attention when translating crucial information such as dosage, dosage schedules, therapeutic regimens, drug descriptions, etc. Translating the text into any language does not confer on you any exclusive rights for that given language. A doctor who publishes his own textbooks can earn many times what he would be paid in royalties by a publishing house. More important than this, however, is the fact that a doctor who writes and publishes wants his texts to be read by as many colleagues, students and patients as possible. Te best way to achieve this is through free parallel publication of these texts on the internet. Free Medical Information describes how to produce a successful medical textbook: from defining the project, selecting the co- authors and fixing the deadlines to building the website, printing, marketing, distributing, and negotiating with the sponsors. A book for future publishers and authors, for doctors and students Free – for all those who would like to know how medical textbooks are produced today. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, the published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use of the material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. Tardencilla Gutiérrez, Paraguay: Juan Carlos Jara Rodríguez, Nilda Jimenez de Romero, Peru: Cesar Antonio Bonilla Asalde, Luis Asencios Solis, Puerto Rico: Ada S. Martinez, Beverly Metchock, Valerie Robinson, Uruguay: Carlos María Rivas-Chetto, Jorge Rodriguez-De Marco, United States of America: Sandy Althomsons, Kenneth G Castro, Beverly Metchock, Valerie Robison, Ryan Wallace.

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Before the basal stem cells of the stratum basale can recreate the epidermis purchase 25mg cozaar with visa diabetes prevention weight loss, fibroblasts mobilize and divide rapidly to repair the damaged tissue by collagen deposition safe cozaar 50 mg diabetes symptoms foot problems, forming granulation tissue. Blood capillaries follow the fibroblasts and help increase blood circulation and oxygen supply to the area. Immune cells, such as macrophages, roam the area and engulf any foreign matter to reduce the chance of infection. Burn patients are treated with intravenous fluids to offset dehydration, as well as intravenous nutrients that enable the body to repair tissues and replace lost proteins. Burned skin is extremely susceptible to bacteria and other pathogens, due to the loss of protection by intact layers of skin. This is referred to as the “rule of nines,” which associates specific anatomical areas with a percentage that is a factor of nine (Figure 5. Although the skin may be painful and swollen, these burns typically heal on their own within a few days. A third-degree burn fully extends into the epidermis and dermis, destroying the tissue and affecting the nerve endings and sensory function. These are serious burns that may appear white, red, or black; they require medical attention and will heal slowly without it. Oddly, third and fourth-degree burns are usually not as painful because the nerve endings themselves are damaged. Full-thickness burns cannot be repaired by the body, because the local tissues used for repair are damaged and require excision (debridement), or amputation in severe cases, followed by grafting of the skin from an unaffected part of the body, or from skin grown in tissue culture for grafting purposes. Scars and Keloids Most cuts or wounds, with the exception of ones that only scratch the surface (the epidermis), lead to scar formation. Scarring occurs in cases in which there is repair of skin damage, but the skin fails to regenerate the original skin structure. Fibroblasts generate scar tissue in the form of collagen, and the bulk of repair is due to the basket-weave pattern generated by collagen fibers and does not result in regeneration of the typical cellular structure of skin. Instead, the tissue is fibrous in nature and does not allow for the regeneration of accessory structures, such as hair follicles, sweat glands, or sebaceous glands. Sometimes, there is an overproduction of scar tissue, because the process of collagen formation does not stop when the wound is healed; this results in the formation of a raised or hypertrophic scar called a keloid. In contrast, scars that result from acne and chickenpox have a sunken appearance and are called atrophic scars. However, modern cosmetic procedures, such as dermabrasion, laser treatments, and filler injections have been invented as remedies for severe scarring. All of these procedures try to reorganize the structure of the epidermis and underlying collagen tissue to make it look more natural. Bedsores, also called decubitis ulcers, are caused by constant, long-term, unrelieved pressure on certain body parts that are bony, reducing blood flow to the area and leading to necrosis (tissue death). Bedsores are most common in elderly patients who have debilitating conditions that cause them to be immobile. Most hospitals and long-term care facilities have the practice of turning the patients every few hours to prevent the incidence of bedsores. A stretch mark results when the dermis is stretched beyond its limits of elasticity, as the skin stretches to accommodate the excess pressure. Calluses When you wear shoes that do not fit well and are a constant source of abrasion on your toes, you tend to form a callus at the point of contact. This occurs because the basal stem cells in the stratum basale are triggered to divide more often to increase the thickness of the skin at the point of abrasion to protect the rest of the body from further damage. This is an example of a minor or local injury, and the skin manages to react and treat the problem independent of the rest of the body. Calluses can also form on your fingers if they are subject to constant mechanical stress, such as long periods of writing, playing string instruments, or video games. The epidermis consists of several layers beginning with the innermost (deepest) stratum basale (germinatum), followed by the stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum (when present), and ending with the outermost layer, the stratum corneum. The topmost layer, the stratum corneum, consists of dead cells that shed periodically and is progressively replaced by cells formed from the basal layer. The stratum basale also contains melanocytes, cells that produce melanin, the pigment primarily responsible for giving skin its color. The dermis connects the epidermis to the hypodermis, and provides strength and elasticity due to the presence of collagen and elastin fibers. It has only two layers: the papillary layer with papillae that extend into the epidermis and the lower, reticular layer composed of loose connective tissue. The hypodermis, deep to the dermis of skin, is the connective tissue that connects the dermis to underlying structures; it also harbors adipose tissue for fat storage and protection.

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