By Y. Riordian. University of Tennessee Health Science Center. 2018.

Interpreting the Estimated Population Variance and Standard Deviation Interpret the estimated population variance and standard deviation in the same way as S2 and S effective 60caps ashwagandha anxiety nos, except that now they describe how much we expect the scores to be spread X X out in the population buy ashwagandha 60 caps overnight delivery anxiety symptoms flushed face, how consistent or inconsistent we expect the scores to be, and how accurately we expect the population to be summarized by. Notice that, assuming a sample is representative, we have pretty much reached our ultimate goal of describing the population of scores. If we can assume that the distribu- tion is normal, we have described its overall shape. So, for example, based on a statistics class with a mean of 80, we’d infer that the population would score at a µ of 80. The size of s (or s2) estimates how spread out the population is, so if s turned out to be 6, we’d X X X expect that the “average amount” the individual scores deviate from the of 80 is about 6. Further, we’d expect about 34% of the scores to fall between 74 and 80 (be- tween and the score at 21sX) and about 34% of the scores to fall between 80 and 86 (between and the score at 11sX) for a total of 68% of the scores between 74 and 86. With this picture in mind, and because scores reflect behaviors, we have a good idea of how most individuals in the population behave in this situation (which is why we con- duct research the first place). Compute the estimated population variance and 13522 standard deviation for the scores 1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 255 – and 5. In every case, we are finding the difference between each score and the mean and then cal- culating an answer that is somewhat like the “average deviation. We compute the de- scriptive versions when the scores are available: When describing the sample, we cal- culate S2 and S. When the X X X X population of scores is unavailable, we infer the variability of the population based on a sample by computing the unbiased estimators, s2 and. With these basics in hand, you are now ready to apply the variance and standard de- viation to research. Thus, the mean from a study might describe the number of times that partic- ipants exhibited a particular behavior, but a small standard deviation indicates that they consistently did so. Or, in a survey, the mean might describe the typical opinion held by participants, but a large standard deviation indicates substantial disagreement among them. We also compute the mean and standard deviation in each condition of an experi- ment. For example, in Chapter 4 we tested the influence of recalling a 5- 10- or 15- item list. By also considering the variability, you would also know that these scores differed from this mean by an “average” of only. In the 15-item condition, however, scores were spread out by almost twice as much, differing from the mean by 1. Therefore, we know that scores were closer to the mean in the 5-item condition, so 3 is a more accurate summary here than 9 is for the 15-item condition. Also, because these recall scores reflect a behavior, we know that memory behavior is more consistent when people recall a 5-item list, with rela- tively large differences in their behavior when recalling a 15-item list. Variability and the Strength of a Relationship Measures of variability also tell us about the strength of the overall relationship that an experiment demonstrates. In an experiment, this translates into everyone in a condition having the same score or close to the same score. In other words, using the terminology of this chapter we would say that a strong relationship occurs when there is little variability among the scores within each condition. This indicates that, as shown, the raw scores within each condition are relatively close to each other. Therefore, the overall relationship between list length and recall scores is rather strong. Therefore, we would describe this as X 3 X 6 X 9 a less consistent, weaker relationship. A third use of variability is that it communicates the amount of error we have when predicting participants’ scores. Variability and Errors in Prediction You know that the mean is the best score to predict as any participant’s score, so, for example, we’d predict a recall score of 3 for anyone in the 5-item condition. To determine our errors when predict- ing unknown scores, we determine how well we can predict the known scores in the data. As in Chapter 4, the amount of error in one prediction is the difference between what someone actually gets 1X2 and what we predict he or she gets (the X). Because some predictions will contain more error than others, we want to find the average error, so we need the “average deviation. Thus, we have a novel way to view S and S2: Because they measure the difference X X between each score and the mean, they also measure the “average” error in our pre- dictions when we predict the mean for all participants. Similarly, the sample variance is somewhat like the average deviation, although less directly. This is too bad because, technically, variance is the proper way to measure the errors in our prediction. This indicates that X when we predict that participants in the 15-item condition scored 9, our “average error”—as measured by the variance—is about 2.

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As the first sentence says order ashwagandha 60 caps free shipping anxiety symptoms upper back pain, the purpose of the treatise is to identify whether the causes of this disturbance lie in both partners or in one of them ashwagandha 60caps sale anxiety jaw pain, so that on the basis of this an appro- priate treatment can be determined: ‘The cause of a man and a woman’s failure to generate when they have intercourse with each other, when their age advances, lies sometimes with both, sometimes only in either of them. Now first one should consider in the female the state of things that con- cern the uterus, so that it may receive treatment if the cause lies in it, but if the cause does not lie in it attention may be given to another one of the causes. This procedure is very clearly expressed in 636 b 6–10: ‘But where none of these impediments is present but the uterus is in the state that we have described, if it is not the case that the husband is the cause of the childlessness or that both are able to have children but are not matched to each other in simultaneous emission but are very discordant, they will have children. See also 635 a 31–2: ‘Concerning the mouth of the uterus, then, those are the grounds from which to consider whether it is in the required state or not’ (perª m•n oÔn t¼ st»ma tän Ëst”rwn –k toÅtwn ¡ sk”yiv –st©n, e« ›cei Þv de± £ mž, tr. All these points are presented as indicators for the observer: they serve as clues to an answer to the original question, whether sterility is due to a defect in the female or in the male. This ‘diagnostic’ character is underscored by the frequency of expressions such as ‘on touching, this will appear. Furthermore, the author shows a great interest in ‘signs’: he very frequently uses expressions such as ‘this indicates. A third point which is relevant in this respect is his frequently recurring observation that a particular condition ‘is in need of treatment’ (qerape©av de»menon), or ‘does not require treatment’, or ‘does not admit of treatment’. These characteristics, in combination with the above-mentioned resem- blances to the Hippocratic writings, suggest that we are not dealing with a biological but with a predominantly medical work, intended to provide instructions on how to deal with an important practical problem. For, in the context of early Greek medicine, to establish whether a certain bodily affection required treatment, and whether it admitted of treatment, was 34 mhd•n ˆnaisqhtot”rav e²nai qigganom”nav. In themselves, these expressions are not peculiar to this treatise, but the high frequency and the emphasis the author puts on indicators are significant. Balme clearly wishes to play down the medical character of the work: ‘the book is not iatric and its “medical” content has been overstated... The author does not pursue the issue of male sterility and does not offer any guidelines as to what causes might be identified if his practical test (referred to above) were to suggest that there was something wrong with the male contribution. This is again different from the much shorter, but at the same time more 37 See the discussion by von Staden (1990). Aristotle On Sterility 269 wide-ranging account of sterility in Generation of Animals (746 b 16ff. What Balme seems to mean when he denies the ‘iatric’ nature of the work is that it is not written by a practising doctor and that it is not intended for a medical readership, for example midwives or doctors. However, Balme seems to make this claim on the basis of the alleged absence of what he calls ‘the typical Hippocratic discussion of diseases and remedies’. As Follinger¨ has pointed out, this concept of Hippocratic medicine is too simplistic. The Hippocratic Corpus is the work of a great variety of au- thors from different periods and possibly different medical schools; as a consequence, the collection displays a great variety of doctrines, styles and methods. There are several works in the Hippocratic Corpus which cer- tainly intend a wider readership than just doctors and which explore in great detail the ‘normal’, ‘natural’ state of affairs (e. On the Art of Medicine, On Breaths) it has even been questioned whether they were really written by a doctor with practical experience. This indicates that the distance between the Hippocratic writers and Aristotle was not so great and that we must assume a whole spectrum of varying degrees of ‘specialism’ or ‘expertise’: we need not assume that Aristotle was a practising doctor himself in order to allow for a vivid interest, on his part, in medical details, nor need we assume that in ‘Hist. As recent research has shown, Aristotle’s awareness of Hippocratic views seems to have been much greater than used to be assumed,45 and several Hippocratic works were at least 42 Follinger (¨ 1996) 147–8. It could be seen as an elaborate answer to the question ‘why is it that women often do not conceive after intercourse? What is there to be said, in the light of these considerations, about the ob- jections to Aristotelian authorship raised by earlier scholars? Leaving aside arguments about style and indebtedness to Hippocratic doctrines, which are inconclusive,47 the main difficulties are the view that the female contributes ‘seed’ to generation and the view that air (pneuma) is needed to draw the seed into the uterus. With regard to the first difficulty, Balme and Follinger¨ have pointed out that also in Generation of Animals Aristotle frequently calls the female contribution ‘seed’, or ‘seed-like’ (spermatik»v),48 which is understandable when one considers that for Aristotle both the menstrual discharge and the sperm have the same material origin. In fact, Aristotle seems to waver on the precise formulation, and the view which he is really keen to dismiss in Generation of Animals is that the female seed is of exactly the same nature as the male49 – a view which he attributes to other thinkers but which is not expressed, at least not explicitly, in ‘Hist. To be sure, there is frequent mention of an emission, by the female, of fluid,51 indeed of seed (sp”rma);52 but on two occasions (636 b 15–16 and 637 b 19) the female is said to ‘contribute to the seed’ (sumb†llesqai e«v t¼ sp”rma). Interpreters have usually assumed that the author believes that both male and female seed mix in the mouth of the uterus and that this mixture is subsequently drawn into the uterus with the aid of pneuma. Now, if this was his position, it would be tanta- mount to the view which Aristotle vigorously combats in Gen. Yet on looking closer at the actual evidence for this, it is by no means certain that this is what the author has in mind. The statement in 637 b 30–1 quoted above can also be taken to mean that female ejaculation brings about a favourable condition – but does not necessarily constitute the material agent – for fertility, which would explain why it is so often mentioned as an indicator:55 the fact that she ejaculates (also in sleep), indicates that she is ready to receive the male seed and draw it into the uterus, because it shows that the uterus is positioned in the right direction. On two other occasions, however, it is said that the woman draws in ‘what she has been given’ (t¼ did»menon, t¼ doq”n),58 which does not really suggest that what is drawn in is a mixture of two contributions from both sides. Aristotle On Sterility 273 not constitute the female contribution in a material sense, the mechanism of its emission does contribute, though perhaps indirectly, to the female’s ability to receive the male seed.

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