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They may believe that death is contagious and avoid association with individuals who have experienced a loss by death cheap 3ml lumigan with amex symptoms at 4 weeks pregnant. Death is often personified in the form of a “bogey man” or a monster—someone who takes people away or someone whom they can avoid if they try hard enough lumigan 3 ml overnight delivery symptoms 7 days after conception. Normal grief reactions at this age include regressive and aggressive behaviors, withdrawal, school phobias, somatic symptoms, and clinging behaviors. Preadolescent children are able to understand that death is final and eventually affects everyone, includ- ing themselves. They are interested in the physical aspects of dying and the final disposition of the body. They understand death to be universal and inevitable; however, they have difficulty tolerating the intense feelings associated with the death of a loved one. They may withdraw into themselves or attempt to go about usual activities in an effort to avoid dealing with the pain of the loss. It is often easier for adolescents to discuss their feelings with peers than with their parents or other adults. Some adolescents may show regressive behaviors whereas oth- ers react by trying to take care of their loved ones who are also grieving. Although they understand that their own death is inevitable, the concept is so far-reaching as to be imperceptible. Loss and Bereavement ● 401 Adults The adult’s concept of death is influenced by cultural and reli- gious backgrounds (Murray, Zentner, & Yakimo, 2009). Behaviors associated with grieving in the adult were discussed in the section on “Theoretical Perspectives on Loss and Bereavement. By the time individuals reach their 60s and 70s, they have experienced numerous losses, and mourning has become a life- long process. Those who are most successful at adapting to losses earlier in life will similarly cope better with the losses and grief inherent in aging. Unfortunately, with the aging proc- ess comes a convergence of losses, the timing of which makes it impossible for the aging individual to complete the grief process in response to one loss before another occurs. Because grief is cumulative, this can result in bereavement overload; the person is less able to adapt and reintegrate, and mental and physical health is jeopardized (Halstead, 2005). Bereavement overload has been implicated as a predisposing factor in the development of depressive disorder in the elderly person. It is important to understand the difference between the depression of normal grieving and the disorder of clinical depression. Long-term Goal Client will progress through the grief process in a healthful manner toward resolution. Reviewing the events of the loss can help the client come to full aware- ness of the loss. Until client can recognize and accept personal feelings regarding the loss, grief work cannot progress. The anger may be directed at the deceased, at God, displaced on others, or retroflected inward on the self. Encourage the client to examine this anger and validate the appropriateness of this feeling. Many people will not admit to angry feelings, believing it is inappropriate and unjustified. Expression of this emotion is necessary to prevent fixation in this stage of grief. Help the client by reviewing the cir- cumstances of the loss and the reality that it could not be prevented. Help the client to put the feelings of helplessness into perspective by pointing out ways that he or she managed situations effectively without help from others. Interpret normal behaviors associated with grieving and provide client with adequate time to grieve. Understanding of the grief process will help prevent feelings of guilt gen- erated by these responses. Individuals need adequate time to accommodate to the loss and all its ramifications. This involves getting past birthdays and anniversaries of which the deceased was a part. Support groups of individuals going through the same experiences can be very helpful for the grieving individual. Assist the client in understanding why these are not healthy defenses and how they delay the process of grieving. Encourage the client to make an honest review of the rela- tionship with what has been lost. Only when the client is able to see both positive and negative aspects related to the loss will the grieving process be complete.

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Te most reliable method of determining if the dimple was up at the time of duplication is to consider the location of the bump relative to the corners of the individual flms themselves cheap lumigan 3 ml overnight delivery medications not to take after gastric bypass. Whenever the dimple is placed upward or out on a flm generic lumigan 3ml fast delivery treatment uterine fibroids, its location will always be in the lower right or upper lef corner of the flm when it is oriented horizontally (Figure 10. Te letters stamped on the flm read correctly when the dimple is up or out when viewed on the view box. Tat is, the beam should enter from the buccal or facial with the flm placed to the lingual. Should this not be taken into account, the flm-orienting dimple will be positioned incorrectly and the teeth will appear to be from the opposite side of the arch and will be misidentifed. Tat is, the beam is always directed upward and from lingual toward buccal or facial. Consequently, when attempting to emulate ante- mortem panoramic views with postmortem intraoral radiography, it may be helpful to reverse the beam direction by placing the flm or sensor on the buccal or facial and directing the beam from the lingual upward. As the panoramic beam is directed upward, lingual objects will be projected higher than buccal objects that are at equal heights. Using computers to diagnose and plan treatment of approximal caries detected in radiographs. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the United States: A comprehensive review for the year 1980 and a summary of trends for the years 1960–1985. Radiation safety for the Nomad™ portable x-ray system in a temporary morgue setting. Historically, photography has been the most signifcant method of preserv- ing the physical evidence of patterned injuries in skin. Te need to accu- rately photograph injury patterns as they appear on skin is paramount to the odontologist, pathologist, law enforcement, and the legal system. Since vast amounts of time ofen elapse between the commission of crimes and the trial 203 204 Forensic dentistry of the perpetrator, photographs frequently are the only permanent record of the injuries to the victims. Terefore, it is imperative that the forensic investi- gator be able to properly photograph injury patterns as a means of preserving such evidence. Tis chapter is better understood if the reader has a good grasp of photo- graphic terminology and the skills for operating basic camera equipment. Tere are many publications that can provide the necessary background to improve one’s understanding of the photographic principles described in this chapter. Two readily available and easy reading books are Basic Photography by Michael Langford1 and Te Basic Book of Photography, Fifh Edition, by Tom Grimm. It will also present the historical photographic tech- niques utilizing traditional flm and the exploding era of digital imaging. Tese wavelengths are measured in millionths of millimeters, referred to as nanometers (nm). Photographic images can be recorded on flm emulsions that are sensitive to light wavelengths anywhere between 250 and 900 nm. Visible light, which we see with our unaided human eye, comprises only from 400 to 760 nm. Most modern digital cameras and traditional photographic flms are specifcally designed to record images seen in the visible range of light as we see them However, it is also possible to record images we cannot see when specifcally illuminated in the shorter ultraviolet range (210 to 400 nm) and longer infrared range (750 to 900 nm). Since ultraviolet and infrared radiations are outside the visible range of the spectrum, they are commonly referred to as nonvisible light. Recent genera- tions of digital cameras have been designed to allow the recording of pat- terned injuries in skin using both visible light and nonvisible light. While the electronic transfer of light to magnetic recording media is very diferent than exposing photographic flm, for the most part, the techniques utilized for image capture are basically the same. Photography using nonvisible light requires special techniques to record the injury, including an occasional minor focusing adjustment called focus shif3 that provides correction for the optical properties of lenses that were designed primarily to be used for visible light photography (Table 11. It is this refection of visible light that accounts for the colors seen by the human eye. It is the absorption of all colored light by an object that makes that object appear black. A third reaction that occurs, especially when light strikes human skin, is the transmission and scattering of the energy associated with the light through successive layers of cells until the energy of the light is spent and has dissipated. Te fnal reaction, which occurs when light energy strikes an object, is a molecular excitation called fuorescence (Figure 11. Molecules in tissue absorb the energy from light and release that energy as a fuorescent glow. It only lasts as long as the light’s excitation energy is applied, usually about 100 nanoseconds (10–9 seconds). When light energy of various wavelengths strikes human skin, all four of the previously mentioned events can occur simultaneously.

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Individuals also are viewed as having erational powers of self-care agency and the kinds the human power (named “self-care agency”) to de- and frequencies of deliberate actions to be per- velop and exercise capabilities necessary for them to formed to know and meet individuals’ therapeutic know and meet the components of their therapeu- self-care demands in time and place frames of tic self-care demands purchase lumigan 3 ml online medications during pregnancy chart. This human power with its place frames of reference (that is generic lumigan 3 ml online symptoms 9dpo bfp, their self-care constituent capabilities and disposition is named agency), are not adequate because of health state or “nursing agency. The identification and development of the components of their own therapeutic self-care de- power of nurses to design and produce nursing care mands and the therapeutic self-care demands of for others are essential elements in any valid general their dependents. The investigation of this power of mature and maturing human beings in self-care and the capabilities and conditions for its exercise and dependent-care by observing their actions in are critical components of nursing science. The societal-contractual system legit- degrees of development and operability of self-care imizes the interpersonal relationships of nurses agency, and in estimating persons’ potential for reg- and persons seeking nursing and their next of kin ulation of the exercise or development of their or their legitimate guardians. Nurses’ capabilities ex- system is constituted from series and sequences of tend to appropriately helping individuals with interaction and communication among legitimate health-associated self-care deficits to know and parties necessary for the design and production meet with appropriate assistance the components of nursing in time-place frames of reference. The of their therapeutic self-care demands and to regu- professional-technological nursing system is the late the exercise and development of their powers system of action productive of nursing. These outcomes of nursing are pendent upon the initial and continuing produc- contributory to the life, health, and well-being of tion of an effective interpersonal system. Outcomes, of Comprehensive general theories of nursing ad- course, are related to the reasons why individuals dress what nurses do, why they do what they do, require nursing care. A Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory, as it has been valid general theory of nursing thus sets forth nurs- developed, builds from expressed insights about the ing’s professional-technological features specific to powers and properties of persons who need nurs- the production of nursing. A general theory of ing care and those who produce it, to the nature nursing that addresses nursing’s professional- and constitution of those properties, to the details technological features provides points of articula- of the structure of the processes of providing nurs- tion with interpersonal features of nursing and sets ing care for individuals, and to the processes for the standards for safe, effective interpersonal sys- providing nursing care in multiperson situations, tems. These features also point to the legitimacy including family and community (Orem, 1995). In the initial and later stages nature of nursing systems within the frame of Self- of development of this general theory of nursing, Care Deficit Nursing Theory, see the Nursing developers formally recognized that nursing is a Development Conference Group’s (1979) develop- triad of interrelated action systems: a professional- ment of a “triad of systems. Consider, Nursing students should be helped to under- for example, the conceptual element of self-care stand and recognize in concrete nursing practice agency in the Self-Care Deficit Nursing Theory. Theoretical stood as the human power to deliberate about, nursing science differentiates content that is specif- make decisions about, and deliberately engage in ically interpersonal from professional-technological result-producing actions or refrain from doing so. However, the power of self-care may not endure or be legitimate throughout nurs- agency is necessarily attributed to human beings ing practice situations. Individual human beings are human beings as self-care agents fits within the viewed as having the status of object subject to view of human beings as persons. Within the Inability of individuals to surmount physical frame of reference of Self-Care Deficit Nursing forces, such as wind or forces of gravity, can Theory, persons who deliberate about and engage arise from both the individual and prevailing in self-care are referred to as “self-care agents” and environmental conditions. All other views are subsumed by the person acteristic properties of human beings specified in view. The person view also is the view essential to the conceptual elements of general nursing models understanding nursing as a triad of action systems. Orem interpersonal contacts with individuals under nurs- (1995) and the Nursing Development Conference ing care and with their family and friends. Group (1979) suggest five broad views of human The person-as-agent view is the essential opera- beings that are necessary for developing under- tional view in understanding nursing. If there is standing of the conceptual constructs of Self-Care nursing, nursing agency is developed and opera- Deficit Nursing Theory and for understanding the tional. If there is self-care on the part of individu- interpersonal and societal aspects of nursing sys- als, self-care agency is developed and operational. The five views are summarized as follows: The agent view incorporates not only discrete de- liberate actions to achieve foreseen results and the The view of person. Individual human beings are structure of processes to do so, but also the powers viewed as embodied persons with inherent and capabilities of persons who are the agents or rights that become sustained public rights who actors. The internal structure, the constitution, and live in coexistence with other persons. A mature the nature of the powers of nursing agency and self- human being “is at once a self and a person with care agency are content elements of nursing sci- a distinctive I and me... The structure of the processes of designing viable rights and able to possess changes and and producing nursing and self-care is also nursing pluralities without endangering his [or her] science content. Individual human beings are tial in understanding the nature of interpersonal viewed as persons who can bring about condi- systems of interaction and communication be- tions that do not presently exist in humans or in tween nurses and persons who seek and receive their environmental situations by deliberately nursing. The age and developmental state, culture, acting using valid means or technologies to and experiences of persons receiving nursing care bring about foreseen and desired results. The beings are viewed as persons who use symbols ability of nurses to be with and communicate effec- to stand for things and attach meaning to them, tively with persons receiving care and with their to formulate and express ideas, and to com- families incorporates the use of meaningful lan- municate ideas and information to others guage and other forms of communication, knowl- through language and other means of commu- edge of appropriate social-cultural practices, nication. Individuals are viewed as uni- what persons receiving care are endeavoring to tary living beings who grow and develop ex- communicate. Nurses also has been a handicap in nurses’ communications may need to help individuals under nursing care to about nursing to the public as well as to persons take these views about themselves. They know that they have rights as persons and as They are embodied persons, and nurses must be nurses and that they must defend and safeguard knowing about their biological and psychobiologi- these personal and professional rights; their powers cal features. Viewing human beings as organisms of nursing agency must be adequate to fulfill re- brings into focus the internal structure, the consti- sponsibilities to meet nursing requirements of per- tution and nature of those human features that are sons under their care; they must know their the foci of the life sciences. Knowing human beings deficiencies, act to overcome them, or secure help as agents or users of symbols has foundations in bi- to make up for them; they must be protective of ology and psychology.

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Strickland order 3ml lumigan free shipping treatment zone lasik, Executive editor While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the infor- mation presented in this publication lumigan 3 ml without prescription treatment rosacea, Gale Group does not guarantee the accuracy of the data contained herein. Errors brought to the attention of the Christine Jeryan, Managing editor publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be cor- Melissa C. Deirdre Blanchfield, Assistant editor This publication is a creative work fully protected by all applicable Mark Springer, Editorial Technical Trainer copyright laws, as well as by misappropriation, trade secret, unfair com- petition, and other applicable laws. Yarrow, Manager, Multimedia and imaging have added value to the underlying factual material herein through one content or more of the following: unique and original selection, coordination, Robyn V. Young, Senior editor, Imaging acquisitions expression, arrangement, and classification of the information. Robert Duncan, Senior imaging specialist All rights to this publication will be vigorously defended. Kenn Zorn, Product design manager Copyright 2001 Marie Claire Krzewinski, Cover design Gale Group Marie Claire Krzewinski and Michelle DiMercurio, 27500 Drake Rd. Melson, Buyer Tables by Mark Berger, Standley Publishing, Ferndale, Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Michigan The Gale encyclopedia of psychology / Bonnie R. Slap Dianne Daeg de Mott Jane Spear Jill De Villiers Laurence Steinberg Marie Doorey Judith Turner Catherine Dybiec Holm Cindy Washabaugh Lindsay Evans Janet A. This number repre- • See also references at the end of entries point the sents one-third more entries than the first edition. Almost terms is included to help the reader understand key 65% of the entries are entirely new or updated concepts. Almost everyone seems interested in understand- first looked at the stars to predict and control their des- ing his or her own behavior, as well as the actions of oth- tiny and the science of astronomy was born. Psychology is, by far, the most popular of the social ics was necessary to count and measure, and eventually and behavioral sciences and one of the most attractive to the physical sciences, such as physics, chemistry, and bi- those who are interested in knowing more about people ology, emerged. It has only been a bit over a centu- gy has been one of the most popular majors for over ry since scientists and philosophers turned their eyes three decades, and students are more likely to take an from the planets to people and tried to understand human elective course in psychology than one from any other behavior in a systematic, scientific way. Not surprisingly, psychology has also become a century, philosophers and physiologists began to exam- popular high school offering. How do individuals use their senses of Initially, psychology courses at the secondary school sight, hearing, and touch to make sense of the world? We are living in In the late second half of the 1800s, a number of times of dramatic social change. Each of us continually young North American men and a few women traveled faces new challenges about how we will make our place in to Germany to study with Wilhelm Wundt, who had es- the world. As the discipline of psychology matured, ad- tablished a laboratory and the first graduate program of justment courses gave way to substantive content courses study in psychology at the University of Leipzig in Ger- that offered not just psychology’s latest findings about de- many. They returned to teach psychology and train other velopmental and identity issues, but also featured those students in the major universities of this country with the more traditional areas of cognitive, experimental, physio- intent of quantifying individual differences and impor- logical, and social psychology. The advances in the scientific side lished a Psychological Clinic at the University of Penn- of psychology were paralleled by the remarkable growth sylvania to help children who were having difficulty in of counseling, clinical, and school psychology. To keep up with the rapidly expanding field, the Being a psychologist, he assumed that his new pro- newly revised second edition of the Gale Encyclopedia fession—dedicated to learning and memory—would of Psychology has added about a third more entries and help him assist children who were having trouble read- biographies. Coverage includes the key concepts on ing, writing, spelling, and remembering information. Clinical information is broadly plex, theoretical notions within the experimental labora- covered, noting the various psychological theories and tories, and he turned to schoolteachers and social work- techniques currently in use and the scientific evidence ers for practical advice. Biographical profiles of major figures in the field of psychology are included, ranging from the Thus began the long struggle between the scientific earliest historical pioneers to current clinicians. On the battle- experiments are valid and replicable (that is, others pur- field, clinicians were helping troops who were experienc- suing the same questions with appropriate methods ing “traumatic neurosis, ” originally called “shell shock” would find the same results). They sometimes feel that in the First World War and now known as post-traumatic clinicians, for example, use psychotherapy techniques stress disorder. When the soldiers returned home, they led that have not been proven to be useful and may even be therapy groups for wounded military personnel. The Veteran’s Hospitals, in The earliest psychologists worked primarily with chil- particular, needed well-trained personnel to provide men- dren, usually those who were delinquent or having trouble tal health services for their patients. They were particularly taken with assessing in- ence held in Boulder, Colorado established standards of telligence and translated a test developed by a Frenchman, education and training for clinical psychologists. They began testing soldiers recruited for the First internship and receive the Ph. According to their tests, they found almost half of newer of training are available for students who want to the young, white male recruits and some 80% of Eastern place more emphasis on practice and less on doing re- European immigrants to be “morons. In addition to university graduate programs, a think the uses of intelligence tests, especially because of large number of professional schools have been estab- opinions like that of journalist Walter Lippman, who rec- lished, often offering a Psy. D (doctor of psychology) de- ommended that the “intelligence testers and their tests gree. Currently, some 4,000 students graduate each year should be sunk without warning in the… sea. The over- denied entrance into this country, and intelligence testing whelming majority of these graduates go into clinical or laid the base for human eugenics laws that allowed individ- applied work, although changing conditions in the health uals who were found “intellectually unfit” to be sterilized.

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